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How to solve the key problems of "trash reform"?
How to solve the key problems of "trash reform"?
11 Июл 2020


Tariffs, the profitability of regional operators, public dissatisfaction with the first stage of the “garbage reform” ... How to solve these problems and build a modern waste management industry within the framework of the tasks of the Ecology national project? What reasonable and effective developments can be taken from abroad? We talked about this with the leader of the public environmental movement “Green Alliance” Alexander Zakondyrin. HTML comment: HTML comment Tariff formation in the solid municipal waste industry is normatively determined by Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of 05.30.2016 N 484 (as amended on 04/13/2019) “On pricing in the field of solid municipal waste management” waste ”(together with the“ Rules for tariff regulation in the field of solid municipal waste management ”). As a general rule, tariffs are set by the executive authority of the constituent entity of the Russian Federation for the next calendar year and are not revised during this period. Everything seems to be logical, but in practice, after the start of the “garbage reform” from January 1, 2019, the difference in tariffs in different regions differed 26 times. The minimum applicable tariff has been set for residents of the city of Dagestan lights in Dagestan. He was 93.48 rubles. for 1 cube m of waste. The maximum tariff was valid in Taimyr, in the technological zone of the Berezovsky district of the Krasnoyarsk Territory - 2487.85 rubles. At the same time, the minimum tariffs in Dagestan and the Krasnoyarsk Territory differ by 9.7 times - 93.48 rubles. and 905.54 rubles. for 1 cube m, respectively, and the maximum tariffs differ only 5.5 times. In general, the tariff for the population consists of two components: the size of the tariff of the regional operator for the export of 1 cubic meter. m of garbage and the rate of accumulation of waste per person or per square meter of floor space. In one region, the minimum and maximum tariffs for operators may apply, since the region is divided into different zones in which different companies operate. Each of them substantiates its expenses for transportation and storage of garbage, which, inter alia, depend on the availability of infrastructure, the distance to it, as well as the investment component for its arrangement, etc. In general, Russia has not the highest tariffs compared to other countries for waste collection. For example, in American cities, garbage collection is most often carried out at a single rate. On average, the cost of this service is from 10 to 40 dollars per month. The cost of garbage removal and processing in Germany depends on the location of the apartment or house. So, in Flensburg (Schleswig-Holstein), the collection and disposal of household and bulky waste, food waste and waste paper costs the property owner or tenant 111 euros a year, and 481 euros in Leverkusen (North Rhine-Westphalia). This amount can go up to 10 percent of the annual utility costs. In South Korea, on average, services make up no more than ten percent of the entire receipt. The total bill for the rent usually goes at 163-217 thousand Korean won (9400-12 500 rubles) per month, and the average salary for middle-class Koreans is 3.8-4.3 million Korean won (218-250 thousand rubles). In Brazil there is no single state fee for the removal and recycling of garbage. Officially, these responsibilities are assigned to municipalities, spending on "garbage" needs from their own budget. For private possessions of citizens with low income, whose total area does not exceed 70 square meters, a discount of 50 percent is set, and the total amount is 135 reais per year (2300 rubles). For the remaining owners of residential premises - 274 reais per year (4700 rubles), for commercial premises - 475 reais (8,200 rubles). The government of the Russian Federation and the heads of regions need to explain the qualitative and quantitative indicators of the results of the reform, then the increase in tariffs will be justified. We have a large country and very different socio-economic development of the regions, different income levels of the population, but practically nowhere was there a modern system of solid municipal waste management. There was no infrastructure for industrial sorting and deep processing of waste. In many respects, this is the Soviet legacy; in other developed countries, the garbage processing industry has been gradually being built over the past 40-50 years, in Russia this has been seriously dealt with only now. The start of the “garbage reform" was very difficult. For example, in Chelyabinsk, a year ago, in September 2018, the yards almost buried in the mountains of waste. Carriers, one by one, unilaterally terminated service contracts. The Ministry of Ecology of the region called the refusal of companies to take out garbage sabotage. According to officials, in this way, enterprises involved in waste collection tried to quadruple tariffs. The city landfill has stopped accepting new garbage. The situation seemed to be stalemate. But the new authorities in the region were able to cope with this situation and now everything is functioning as usual. Omsk caused serious concerns. Omsk region turned out to be one of those failed regions that could not switch to a new system


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